Main Article Content
The importance of entrepreneurial activities has become very important in the economies of developing countries which are experiencing problems of joblessness and low productivity, whereby many countries are giving significant attention in developing and promoting entrepreneurial activities as these activities are proven to reinforce economics through job and venture creations, overcoming unemployment problems, and enabling economic progress in most developing countries. And in order increase support for entrepreneurial activities, the best response to these changes in employment and economics is to carry necessary entrepreneurial skills by adopting entrepreneurship education (EE) that may help graduates students to be a job creator than job seekers. Most of the research in entrepreneurship literature has agreed on using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in investigating entrepreneurial intention. However, the number of studies conducted in Egypt on the formation of entrepreneurial intention is considerably less prominent in the literature. Therefore, in contributing toward the knowledge scarcity in the literature on female entrepreneurship intentions, The aim of this paper is to empirically identify the moderating effect of entrepreneurial education (EE) on the relation between entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), social support components which are family support (FS) and friends support (PS) on entrepreneurial intention (EI) among final year female tourism undergraduate students in Egypt. In addition, (TPB) is used as a theoretical framework in this study. The sample of this empirical study consists of 543 final year female tourism undergraduate students from eight public universities in Egypt, whereby, the data were analyzed by using partial least squares (SmartPLS) version 3.2.8. Results indicated that entrepreneurial self-efficacy and family support are determinant of females’ entrepreneurial intention, while friends support was found to have a significant but negative effect on female students’ entrepreneurial intention. Concerning the moderating effect of (EE) results found that entrepreneurship education plays a significant moderating role, by strengthening the entrepreneurial self-efficacy, friends’ support and increase females’ entrepreneurial intention, while EE found to have no significant effect between family support and female (EI). The outcome of this study has necessary implication for females' entrepreneurship literature whereby it suggests that higher education institutions should focus on modifying the female student's attitude through formal entrepreneurship education programs and courses to encourage more entrepreneurial activity.
Gird A, Bagraim JJ. The theory of planned behaviour as predictor of entrepreneurial intent amongst final-year university students. South African Journal of Psychology. 2008;38(4):711-724.
Zoltan AC. How is entrepreneurship good for economic growth? Innovation: Technology, Governance, Globalization, Winter. MIT Press. 2006;1(1):97-107.
Urbano D, Aparicio S. Entrepreneurship capital types and economic growth: International evidence. Technological Forecasting & Social Change. 2016;102:34-44.
WTTC, World Travel and Tourism Council. Travel & Tourism Economic Impact World; 2019.
Lordkipanidze M, Brezet H, Backman M. The entrepreneurship factor in sustainable tourism development. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2005;13(8):787-798.
Gurel E, Altinay L, Daniele R. Tourism students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Annals of Tourism Research. 2010;37(3):646-669.
Getz D, Carlsen J. Characteristics and goals of family and owner-operated businesses in the rural tourism and hospitality sectors. Tourism Management. 2000;21(6):547–560.
Getz D, Carlsen J. Family business in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research. 2005;32(1):237–258.
Hilmi N, Safa A, Reynaud S. Coral reefs and tourism in Egypt's red sea. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies. 2012;14.
Braun P, Hollick M. Tourism skills delivery: Sharing tourism knowledge online. Education and Training. 2006;48(8/9):693-703.
Jóhannesson GT, Huijbens EH. Tourism in times of crisis: Exploring the discourse of tourism development in Iceland. Current Issues in Tourism. 2010;13(5):419-434.
Walmsley A, Thomas R. Understanding and influencing the entrepreneurial intentions of tourism students. Tourism and Entrepreneurship: International Perspectives. 2009;333-344.
Soliman DM. Entrepreneurial intention among tourism undergraduate students in Egypt. Tourism Analysis. 2011;16(4):471-481.
Chen CC, Greene PG, Crick A. Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing. 1998;13(4):295-316.
Guerrero V, Richards J. Female entrepreneurs and negotiation self-efficacy: A study on negotiation skill building among women entrepreneurs. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education. 2015;18(2):17.
Díaz-García MC, Jiménez-Moreno J. Entrepreneurial intention: The role of gender. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2010;6(3):261-283.
Wilson F, Kickul J, Marlino D. Gender, entrepreneurial self–efficacy and entre-preneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2007;31(3):387-406.
Mueller SL, Dato-on MC. A cross cultural study of gender-role orientation and its effect on entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings. United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. 2010;198.
House JS. Work stress and social support. Addison-Wesley Series on Occupational Stress; 1983.
Ucbasaran D, Westhead P, Wright M. Opportunity identification and pursuit: Does an entrepreneur’s human capital matter? Small Business Economics. 2008;30(2):153-173.
Bagheri A, Pihie ZAL. Entrepreneurial leadership learning: In search of missing links. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2010;7:470-479.
Zafar MJ, Yasin G, Ijaz M. Social networking a source for developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs: A case of Multan. Asian Economic and Financial Review. 2012;2(8):1072.
Ismail A, Nor SM, Yahya Z, Zahar UAU, Ismail Y, Samah AJA. Social support in job performance as an antecedent of work intrusion on family conflict: Empirical evidence. Management. 2013;18(2):37–55.
Procidano ME, Heller K. Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology. 1983;11(1):1-24.
Ciappei C, Laudano MC, Zollo L, Rialti R. Evaluating the quality of entrepreneurial education analysing its ability to increase entrepreneurial attitude and intent of students. In Toulon-Verona Conference" Excellence in Services; 2016.
Echtner CM. Entrepreneurial training in developing countries. Annals of Tourism Research. 1995;22(1):119-134.
Airey D, Tribe J. Education for hospitality. In search of hospitality: Theoretical Perspectives and Debates. 2000;276-291.
Morris MH, Webb JW, Fu J, Singhal S. A competency‐based perspective on entrepreneurship education: Conceptual and empirical insights. Journal of Small Business Management. 2013;51(3):352-369.
Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991;50(2):179-211.
Fishbein M, Ajzen I. Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior; 1980.
Kolvereid L. Prediction of employment status choice intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. 1996;21(1):47-58.
Vinokur AD, Van Ryn M. Social support and undermining in close relationships: their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1993;65(2):350.
Bird B, Jelinek M. The operation of entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice. 1988;13(2):21-29.
Zhao H, Seibert S, Hills G. The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2005;90(6):1265-1272.
Krueger NJ, Brazeal D. Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 1994;18(3):91-104.
Dell MS. An investigation of undergraduate student self-employment intention and the impact of entrepreneurship education and previous entrepreneurial experience; 2008.
Dohse D, Walter SG. The role of entrepreneurship education and regional context in forming entrepreneurial intentions (No. 2010, 18); 2010.
Douglas EJ, Shepherd DA. Self-employment as a career choice. Journal of Business Venturing. 2002;15(3):231-251.
Dickson PH, Solomon GT, Weaver KM. Entrepreneurial selection and success: does education matter? Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 2008;15(2):239-258.
Kautonen T, Van Gelderen M, Fink M. Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2015;39(3):655-674.
Rauch A, Hulsink W. Putting entrepreneurship education where the intention to act lies: An investigation into the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial behavior. Academy of Management Learning & Education. 2015;14(2):187-204.
Shapero A, Sokol L. The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of Entre-preneurship. 1982;72-90.
Krueger N, Reilly M, Carsrud A. Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing. 2000;15:411-432.
Liñán F, Chen YW. Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entre-preneurship Theory and Practice. 2009;33(3): 593-617.
Greve A, Salaff JW. Social networks and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2003;28(1):1-22.
Jennings JE, McDougald MS. Work-family interface experiences and coping strategies: Implications for entrepreneurship research and practice. Academy of Management Review. 2007;32(3):747-760.
Powell GN, Eddleston KA. Linking family-to-business enrichment and support to entrepreneurial success: Do female and male entrepreneurs experience different outcomes? Journal of Business Venturing. 2013;28(2): 261-280.
Sahban MA, Kumar M, Sri Ramalu S. Instrument development: Entrepreneurial Social Support Assessment Instrument (IESSA). Research Journal of Economics & Business Studies. 2015;4(3):21-36.
Kapusuz AG, Çavuş MF, Pekkan NÜ. Perceived social support and social entrepreneurship: Gender perspective from Turkey. In Knowledge, Learning and Innovation. Springer, Cham. 2018;75-90.
Zellweger T, Sieger P, Halter F. Should I stay or should I go? Career choice intentions of students with family business background. Journal of Business Venturing. 2011;26(5):521-536.
Sequeira J, Mueller SL, McGee JE. The influence of social ties and self-efficacy in forming entrepreneurial intentions and motivating nascent behavior. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship. 2007;12(03):275-293.
Yurtkoru ES, Kuşcu ZK, Doğanay A. Exploring the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention on Turkish university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;150:841-850.
Asfaw EW. Entrepreneurship in family businesses in Ethiopia. Contextualizing Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies and Developing Countries. 2017;224.
Hana S, Rani A. A study of relationship between family support, role model and financial support towards entrepreneurial inclination among UUM non-business students. University Utara Malaysia; 2012.
Murphy L, Lambrechts F. Investigating the actual career decisions of the next generation: The impact of family business involvement. Journal of Family Business Strategy. 2015;6(1):33-44.
Henderson R, Robertson M. Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Young adult attitudes to entrepreneurship as a career. Career Development International. 2000;5(6):279-287.
Wang CK, Wong PK. Entrepreneurial interest of university students in Singapore. Technovation. 2004;24(2):163‐72.
Carr JC, Sequeira JM. Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and entrepreneurial intent: A theory of planned behavior approach. Journal of Business Research. 2007;60(10):1090-1098.
Wyrwich M. Entrepreneurship and the intergenerational transmission of values. Small Business Economics. 2015;45(1):191-213.
Aldrich HE, Cliff JE. The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing. 2003;18(5):573-596.
Abebe MA, Gangadharan A, Sutanonpaiboon J. Perceived social support and social status as drivers of entrepreneurial career intentions between Caucasian and Mexican-American young adults. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education. 2014;17.
Osorio AE, Settles A, Shen T. The influence of support factors on entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of college students. In Academy of Management Proceedings. Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management. 2017;1: 10901.
Bagheri A, Pihie ZAL, Akmaliah Z. Role of family in entrepreneurial leadership development of university students. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2010;11(4):434-442.
Falck O, Heblich S, Luedemann E. Identity and entrepreneurship: Do school peers shape entrepreneurial intentions? Small Business Economics. 2012;39(1):39-59.
Obschonka M, Goethner M, Silbereisen RK, Cantner U. Social identity and the transition to entrepreneurship: The role of group identification with workplace peers. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2012;80(1):137- 147.
Bönte W, Falck O, Heblich S. The impact of regional age structure on entrepreneurship. Economic Geography. 2009;85(3):269-287.
Greene FJ, Han L, Marlow S. Like mother, like daughter? Analyzing maternal influences upon women's entrepreneurial propensity. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2013; 37(4):687-711.
Laspita S, Breugst N, Heblich S, Patzelt H. Intergenerational transmission of entre-preneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing. 2012;27(4):414-435.
Arenius P, Minniti M. Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics. 2005;24(3):233-247.
Gianetti M, Simonov A. Social interactions and entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy. 2009;18(3):665-709.
Bandura A, Adams NE. Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1977;1(4):287-310.
Manstead AS, Van Eekelen SA. Distinguishing between perceived behavioral control and self‐efficacy in the domain of academic achievement intentions and behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1998;28(15):1375-1392.
Tavousi M, Hidarnia AR, Montazeri A, Hajizadeh E, Taremain F, Ghofranipour F. Are perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy distinct constructs. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2009;30(1):146-152.
Krueger NF, Reilly MD, Carsrud AL. 'Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions'. Journal of Business Venturing. 2000;15(5):411-432.
Barbosa SD, Gerhardt MW, Kickul JR. The role of cognitive style and risk preference on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 2007;13(4):86-104.
Drnovšek M, Wincent J, Cardon MS. Entrepreneurial self‐efficacy and business start‐up: Developing a multi‐dimensional definition. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research; 2010.
Riyanti. Kewirausahaan Bagi Mahasiswa. 1st edn. Jakarta: Fakultas Psikologi Unika Atma Jaya; 2009.
Aloulou WJ. Entrepreneurial intention among freshmen students—Application of the Theory of planned behaviour in Saudi context. Journal of Enterprising Culture. 2015;23(04):473-500.
Hattab HW. Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Egypt. The Journal of Entrepreneurship. 2014;23(1):1-18.
Mueller SL, Dato-On MC. Gender-role orientation as a determinant of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Journal of developmental Entrepreneurship. 2008;13(01):3-20.
Tsai KH Chang HC, Peng CY. Extending the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: A moderated mediation model. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2016;12(2):445-463.
Martínez AC, Levie J, Kelley DJ, SÆmundsson RJ, Schøtt T. Global entrepreneurship monitor special report: A global perspective on entrepreneurship education and training; 2010.
Borozan D, Dabic M. Entrepreneur's attitudes as a preference of future job vision: An empirical evaluation and implications for teaching. In An Enterprise Odyssey. International Conference Proceedings. 2008;329.
Mehtap S. An EU-Arab partnership to foster entrepreneurship education in the Middle East: The ASPIRE program. International Proceedings of Economics Development and Research. 2014;81:124.
Béchard JP, Grégoire D, Kyrö P, Carrier C. Understanding teaching models in entrepreneurship for higher education. HEC Montréal, Chaire d'entrepreneuriat Rogers-J.-A.-Bombardier; 2005.
Yamin S, Tanas JK. Entrepreneurial education in Poland for the new millennium: A social capital perspective. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research. 2006;1(1-2):73-91.
Pittaway L, Cope J. Entrepreneurship education: A systematic review of the evidence. International Small Business Journal. 2007;25(5):479-510.
Segal G, Borgia D, Schoenfeld J. The motivation to become an entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. 2005;11(1):42-57.
Merenda MJ, Li J, Dutta D. Does entrepreneurship education matter? Proceedings of the Northeast Business & Economics Association; 2010.
Fayolle A, Gailly B. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention: Hysteresis and persistence. Journal of Small Business Management. 2015;53(1):75-93.
Souitaris V, Zerbinati S, Al-Laham A. Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing. 2007;22(4):566-591.
Sánchez JC. The impact of an entrepreneurship education program on entrepreneurial competencies and intention. Journal of Small Business Management. 2013;51(3):447-465.
Busenitz LW, Plummer LA, Klotz AC, Shahzad A, Rhoads K. Entrepreneurship research (1985–2009) and the Emergence of Opportunities; 2014.
Kirby DA, Humayun H. Outcomes of an entrepreneurship education programme: An empirical study in Egypt. International Journal of Management. 2013;30(3):23.
Zhang Y, Duysters G, Cloodt M. The role of entrepreneurship education as a predictor of university students’ entrepreneurial intention. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2014;10(3):623-641.
Nabi G, Holden R, Walmsley A. Entrepreneurial intentions among students: Towards a re-focused research agenda. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 2010;17(4):537-551.
Byabashaija W, Katono I. The impact of college entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention to start a business in Uganda. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship. 2011;16(01):127-144.
Prakash D, Jain S, Chauhan K. Supportive government policies, locus of control and student’s entrepreneurial intensity: A study of India. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research. 2015;5(1):26.
Neuman L. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (7th ed.). Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Ltd; 2014.
Henseler J, Ringle CM, Sinkovics RR. The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing New challenges to international marketing. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 2009;277-319.
Wold H. Partial least squares. In Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Kotz, S & Johnson, N.L. (Eds), John Wiley & Sons, New York. 1985;6:581-591.
Forbes DP. The effects of strategic decision making on entrepreneurial self‐efficacy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2005;29(5):599-626.
McStay D. An investigation of undergraduate student self-employment intention and the impact of entrepreneurship education and previous entrepreneurial experience (Bond University); 2008.
Liñán F, Chen YW. Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2009;33(3):593-617.
Gupta VK, Turban DB, Wasti SA, Sikdar A. The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2009;33(2):397-417.
Liñán F, Rodríguez-Cohard JC, Rueda-Cantuche JM. Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels: A role for education. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2011;7(2):195–218.
Schwarz EJ, Wdowiak MA, Almer‐Jarz DA, Breitenecker RJ. The effects of attitudes and perceived environment conditions on students' entrepreneurial intent. Education+ Training; 2009.
Malebana MJ, Swanepoel E. The relationship between exposure to entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial self-efficacy; 2011.
[Retrieved November 11, 2014]
Saunders M, Lewis P, Thornhill A. Research methods for business students (7th ed.). Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Ltd; 2016.
Hair JF, Anderson RE, Babin BJ, Black WC. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2010.
Ramayah T, Cheah J, Chuah F, Ting H, Memon MA. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS 3.0: An updated practical guide to statistical analysis (2nd ed.). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Bhd; 2018.
Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Ltd; 2014.
Sapnas KG, Zeller RA. Minimizing sample size when using exploratory factor analysis for measurement. Journal of Nursing Measurement. 2002;10(2):135-154.
Williams B, Onsman A, Brown T. Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Australasian Journal of Paramedicine. 2010; 8(3).
Conroy R. Sample size: A rough guide. Retrieved from Dublin, Ireland; 2015.
Feldt LS, Ankenmann RD. Appropriate sample size for comparing alpha reliabilities. Applied Psychological Measurement. 1998;22(2):170-178.
Yurdugül H. Minimum sample size for Cronbach’s coefficient alpha: a Monte-Carlo study. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi. 2008;35(35):1-9.
DeVellis RF. Scale development: Theory and application (2nd ed. Vol. 26). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc; 2003.
Bryman A. Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 2012.
Pituch K, Stevens JP. Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences - Analyses with SAS and IBM's SPSS (6th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group; 2016.
Fraenkel JR, Wallen NE, Hyun HH. How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc; 2012.
Nunnally JC. Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Education; 1978.
Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (1st ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc; 2014.
Hair JF, Hult GTM, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc; 2017.
Berman H. Two-tailed test; 2019.
Ren ZY, Ping LI, Li YX. The relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. In 2018 International Conference on Management Science and Engineering (ICMSE). IEEE. 2018;517-522.
Ucbasaran D, Westhead P, Wright M. Opportunity identification and pursuit: Does an entrepreneur’s human capital matter? Small Business Economics. 2008;30(2):153-173.
Zhang P, Cain KW. Reassessing the link between risk aversion and entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research; 2017.
Nanda R, Sorensen J. Workplace Peers and Entrepreneurship (March 10, 2009). Harvard Business School Entrepreneurial Management (No. 08-051); 2009.
Timmons JA, Spinelli S, Tan Y. New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st century. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 2004;6.
Fielden SL, Hunt CM. Online coaching: An alternative source of social support for female entrepreneurs during venture creation. International Small Business Journal. 2011; 29(4):345-359.
Arregle JL, Batjargal B, Hitt MA, Webb JW, Miller T, Tsui AS. Family ties in entrepreneurs’ social networks and new venture growth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2015;39(2):313-344.