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This study investigated the difference between the academic performance of identical twin boys and girls; between fraternal twin boys and girls; and between twins of mixed sex and singletons of mixed sex in the primary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria. Primary three pupils’ past examination scores in Mathematics, English language, Basic science, and Social studies were used for the assessment. Population of the study was 23,575 primary three pupils found in the 943 public primary schools in Rivers State. Sample size was 1,028 pupils. The study adopted the ex-post facto design. Instrument for data collection was the 12 – items statement titled: “Difference in the Academic Performance between Twins and between Twins and Singletons (DAPTTS)” questionnaire. The findings of the study revealed that twin boys and girls do not differ significantly in the four subjects; fraternal twin boys and girls differed significantly in the four subjects; while there was also significant difference between twins of mixed sex and singletons of mixed sex in the four subjects .However, it was concluded that individual difference, heredity and environment play vital roles in both twins and singletons’ intellectual or cognitive difference. It was therefore recommended among others that in either twins (identical or fraternal) and singletons, individual difference, heredity and environment should not be over emphasized by teachers, parents and all around the pupils.
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